Now I am fifteen, sitting in my American History class, in a Catholic high school in the Deep South. I am a little nervous because we are studying the discovery of America and I fear that my teacher, like my Ecuadorian teacher before him, will attack me for Spain\’s role in the conquest. But I needn\’t have worried. The talk here is all about Columbus, which makes the Italian kids in the class feel important. Just before the bell rings, almost in passing, the teacher briefly mentions the queen of Spain.
How is this possible? In my Spanish school, Isabel, la Reina Católica, was presented to us girls as a paragon of womanhood, a queen who shared equal power with her husband, Fernando de Aragón. She unified the squabbling kingdoms of the peninsula into one great country, won a decisive victory over the Moors, and was the only European ruler who listened to Columbus and gave him the money, the men, and the ships to embark on his crazy adventure. But in this American classroom, the queen and her magnificent enterprise are dismissed with barely a word. Perhaps, I tell myself, we will learn more about Spain\’s role in America in the next class.
But instead, in the next class we celebrate the arrival of the English in North America, and the establishment of the New England colonies. Not much is said about the the Indians that the colonists encountered, and I wonder what happened to them, since there don\’t seem to be nearly as many around as there are in South America…
I have now studied the events of 1492 in three different countries. In Spain, we were taught the discovery and conquest of the New World as a glorious chapter in the history of humanity. In Ecuador, my teacher presented Spain as a cruel and greedy imperialist power. Now, in my American classroom, Spanish history is all but ignored. One historical era, and three completely different versions of it–my adolescent brain is beginning to suspect that history class may not be all that different from literature class.
Three years pass, and now I\’m sitting in Western Civ, in my liberal arts college, also in the Deep South. We are back to 1492, and the professor, unlike my high school teacher, does pay Queen Isabella some attention. But now she is presented as a monster who expelled the Moors and the Jews from Spain and gave the Inquisition the power to torture and kill in the name of the Catholic faith. Oddly, I don\’t remember being taught about the Inquisition in my Catholic high school.
Soon we get to Elizabeth I, and I am amazed to hear her described as a powerful, enlightened monarch who vanquished Spain and put England at the head of the civilized world. I dimly recall my teacher in Spain describing the Virgin Queen as a thief who paid pirates to sink Spanish ships…
I am older now and these discrepancies no longer upset me like they used to. I realize that Western Civ is a handy framework on which to hang what I am learning in other classes on European art, philosophy, and literature. And for relief from the treacherous sands of history there is always my Biology major, which I have chosen because it seems to offer firm ground for my wobbly mind. In my white lab coat, inhaling formaldehyde fumes, I can put a slide under the microscope and identify this tiny swimming animal as a Paramecium and that tiny photosynthesizing plant as a Euglena, and take comfort in the belief that scientists all over the world agree with my identification.
This is the 1960s, however, and Biology is changing rapidly. Little do I suspect that by the end of the decade both Paramecium and Euglena, no longer clearly identified as either animal or plant, will be dumped into that swamp of uncertainty, the kingdom Protista. But by then I am in graduate school, studying French literature, which everyone agrees is just words anyway.
Fantastic! History, much like political science, is a \”Push-Me-Pull-You\” between confirmation bias and cognitive dissonance grazing inside its own pen. (All puns intended)
So true. Good puns, too…
A fascinating way to view the incompatible slants on history–and so finely written. Thank you.
\”Incompatible\” is right. I was a very confused student.
This pair of essays is fantastic. Thank you.
This so reminded me of learning about the American Revolution in a British school. Who knew that we cheated!! We hid behind trees. Such experiences and learning of them bring us closer to the current debates of statues and school names and how history is taught and written.
So good to hear from you! Sounds like you too learned about relativity at an early age.
Thank you for this wonderful analysis. As an ex-Ecuadorean attending elementary school in the 70’s, we did learn a lot about the bloody conquest, for example the red stripe int the flag representing the spilled blood of our ancestors. However, Columbus seemed to have a special place in our history as a heroic figure. However, when we moved to the States, Columbus suddenly was the villain, and became more of a villain in the last decade. History is not only relative based on where you learn it, but also when you learn it.